GORODKI is an old Russian game. Its history goes back several centuries. Mention of the gorodki can be found in documents relating to the history of Ancient Russia. This game has gone down in history as part of the national culture of the Russian people. Gorodki is one of the few sports that has become popular in Russia. This is the only native Russian sport! This title is still claimed by the game of lapta, which has also been played in Russia for centuries, but it is impossible to prove that lapta was born in Russia. Similar games existed (and are now being developed) in many countries around the world.
The fact that the game of small gorodki originated in Russia cannot and does not challenge any nation in the world. The firmness of the hand, the accuracy of the eye, the ability to quickly assess the situation and make the right decisions – qualities revered in all ages. No wonder many outstanding people of Russia liked to play in small gorodki. In the Soviet press, it was often mentioned that Tsar Peter I liked to play gorodki. But no evidence of this has been found.
Peter I is credited with authorship in the creation of the figures "Cannon"and " Artillery". You can't rule it out, but it's probably a legend. But the last emperor of Russia, Nicholas II, just played in the gorodki and loved to play - he personally wrote about it in his diaries! Loved city of the "battle" invincible Generalissimo Alexander Suvorov. It belongs to the popular expression: "With a bat I rush-this is an eye, with a bat I beat-this is speed, with a bat I knock out-this is an onslaught." The Nobel Prize-winning academician I. P. Pavlov, the world-famous writers L. N. Tolstoy and A. M. Tolstoy were fond of playing small gorodki. Gorky, poet Vladimir Mayakovsky, pilot Valery Chkalov, famous singers Fyodor Chaliapin and Sergey Lemeshev, music critic and composer V. V. Stasov. In their spare time, V. I. Lenin and I. V. Stalin liked to throw a bat. Despite the native Russian origin, gorodki, and later gorodoshny sport, were very popular among all peoples and in all regions of Russia, and in Ukraine and in the Republic of Belarus they are also considered a folk sport. In 1923, the game was given an official status, unified competition rules were approved, and the first All-Union competitions were held. This year was the year of birth of gorodki sport. For more than 90 years of history, the rules of the game have not changed significantly, but the surface and equipment of the site, the design of the bat have changed. The size of the court, the distance for throws, the figures remained the same. Previously, they played with wooden light bats, then they began to make them more weighty. To achieve greater efficiency in the game, as well as for the possibility of repair, the bits began to be made composite, with metal bushings and an end cup - to give the desired weight and center of gravity. At first, the gorodki were played on dirt platforms, then on paved or concreted ones. With the use of heavy composite bits, the platforms were covered with metal sheets. In recent years, metal sheets have increasingly been replaced with impact-resistant polymer ones. Gorodoshny sport in the 30s-80s of the last century was extremely popular in all regions of the Russian Federation without exception and developed in all Union republics. After the collapse of the USSR in 1993, the International Federation of Urban Sports (IFGS )was established, which included the Urban Sports Federations of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Later, IFGS was joined by federations and organizations developing urban sports in Moldova, Estonia, Latvia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Mongolia.
Since 1995, European Championships and Cups have been held, since 2001 – World Championships. In Russia in the 90-ies gorodoshny sport experienced a severe crisis, to recover from which it has not yet been possible. In many regions of the country gorodki sport ceased to exist ( but the game of skittles was not forgotten!). In recent years, the efforts of the All – Russian public Organization "Federation of Urban Sports of Russia" and activists-gorodoshnikov again began to form regional federations. The development of urban sports again began to attract the attention of state leaders and government members.
Russian President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin personally took part in the game of gorodki at the opening of the sixth All-Russian Rural Games in Izhevsk. The Mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin tried his hand at the opening of a new gorodoshnaya site in the South-Western Administrative District of Moscow At the II International Forum "Russia-a sports power" masterful possession of the bat was also shown by the Minister of Sports Vitaly Mutko. Not indifferent to city sports and defense Minister Sergei Shoigu Shoigu. Early city sites were only stationary. In recent years, various options for quickly assembled "mobile"sites have been developed. Now it is possible to arrange a gorodoshny platform both for practicing gorodoshny sports, and for holding mass competitions in the game of gorodki in any room and on any flat area. Sports disciplines in urban sports. In recent years, under the auspices of the IFGS, in addition to the game of composite bats, which began to be called "classic gorodki", two more sports disciplines began to develop - "Finnish gorodki" and"Euro gorodki". Finnish gorodki — a game of gorodki with wooden bats on a flat horizontal dirt platform, which consists of knocking out from a certain distance ten pairs of cylindrical gorodki in pairs and individual competitions or twenty pairs of gorodki in team competitions. This option is widely spoken in Finland and is called "Kyykka". The game "Kyukkya" has a Karelian origin, in fact, is a variant of the game in gorodki widely spread in Russia at the end of the 19th century. In recent years, the game Kuukka dynamically reborn in the Republic of Karelia. On the international stage, the game was promoted by the Kyukkya Game Association of Finland and therefore the name "Finnish gorodki "took root. Classic gorodki . Composite bits are used to play classic gorodki. The weight of the bat is not limited for men and boys. For girls and women, the weight of the bat should not exceed 2 kg. From five cylindrical wooden gorodki on metal or impact-resistant polymer sheets, 15 figures are installed in turn. The essence of the game is to knock out pieces from the site, which is a square called "city".